Further Reading for osteosarcoma

This information has been written for patients, their families and friends, and the general public to help them understand more about chondrosarcoma: what it is and the different types. This information is produced in accordance with BCRT's information policy.

BCRT’s information about osteosarcoma has been compiled using only peer-reviewed clinical and scientific studies, reviews and case studies.  Peer review is a process in which the work of one scientist or doctor is looked at and checked by other experts in the same subject area.  The peer review process helps to ensure the science is ‘reliable’.

If you are interested in reading deeper into the subject BCRT have provided a bibliography listing references and books, which were used to compile the osteosarcoma information.

Alternatively, you could look at the BCRT sections for health care professionals or our research sections on the website.

Many of the sources used in BCRT information and research sections are written for a scientific or professional audience.  However, some of the sources in the list below are readable for a non-scientific audience and these are in red text.  Alternatively, if there is a specific research paper that you are interested in and you would like it explained in lay terms, please email the BCRT Information and Research Officer at Jennifer.houniet@bcrt.org.uk

To view journal articles online the best place to start is PubMed (a service of the National Library of Medicine), often also called Medline.  This is a database of medical and biomedical peer reviewed articles. 

PubMed searches will bring up the abstracts (summary of aims, method, results and conclusion) of peer reviewed journal references.  This can be done by accessing the PubMed website at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ or via a Google search with the study/ article title.

The journal references may bit a bit confusing at first.  A reference shows the name of the author(s), title of the study, journal name, year published, volume, issue number in brackets, and page(s) numbers, in that order.

The journal title is often abbreviated.  For example Br J Cancer is British Journal of Cancer.  If you wish to retrieve the full text of an article online you may have to pay a fee.  However, most large main libraries should have the journals or they will be able to get hold of the journal or article for you.

More and more research is now published in ‘open access’ journals, this gives free access to research articles but not for reviews unfortunately.  Where free full text is available it is stated alongside the reference with a link.

The abstract or summary of an article is usually sufficient to assess if the article will be of interest to you and what the main findings/ conclusions of the study were.

Books

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M.  Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Science; 5th edition, 2005.  ISBN-10: 0815341059. 

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005, Section B, Chapter 6, p.   Available to download here. 

Cullinane CJ, Burchill SA, Squire JA, O'Leary JJ, Lewis IJ (eds).  Molecular Biology and Pathology of Paediatric Cancer.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN-10: 0192630792.

Kleihues P, Sobin L, Fletcher C et al, (eds.) WHO Classification of Tumours:  Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone,  Lyon, France:  IARC Press.  PDF version available free here.

Mackay J.  The chemotherapy and radiotherapy survival guide. New Harbinger Publications, 1998. ISBN 1572240709.

Clinical/ Biomedical Journal Articles.

Osteosarcoma (General)

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005.  Available to download here.

Brandal P, Bjerkehagen B, Bruland OS, Skjeldal S, Bogsrud TV, Hall KS. Synchronous and metachronous skeletal osteosarcomas: the Norwegian Radium Hospital experience. Acta Oncol. 2009; 48(8): 1165-72.

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Epidemiology.  Accessed December 2009 here.

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Classification of bone tumours.  Accessed December 2009 here.

Eyre R, Feltbower RG, Mubwandarikwa E, Jenkinson HC, Parkes S, Birch JM, Eden TOB,  James PW, McKinney PA, Pearce MS, McNally RJQ. Incidence and survival of childhood bone cancer in northern England and the West Midlands, 1981–2002.  Br J Cancer. 2009;100, 188-193.

Gibbs CP, Weber K, Scarborough MT.  Malignant Bone Tumors.  J Bone & Joint Sur (American). 2001; 83: 1728-1745.

Kallel R, Ayadi L, Toumi N, Daoud E, Khabir A, Ellouze Z, Charfi S, Makni S, Boudawara TS. Small cell osteosarcoma: a case report. Pathologica. 2009;01(2): 101-4.

Klein MJ, Siegal GP. Osteosarcoma: anatomic and histologic variants. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006; 125(4): 555-81.   Free full text available here.

Kunze B, Bürkle S, Kluba T. Multifocal osteosarcoma in childhood. Chir Organi Mov. 2009; 93(1): 27-31.

Lee JA, Kim MS, Koh JS, Kim MS, Kim DH, Lim JS, Kong CB, Song WS, Cho WH, Lee SY, Jeon DG. Osteosarcoma of the Flat Bone. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 19892781. 

Raymond AK, Ayala AG, Knuutila S.  Conventional osteosarcoma.  In WHO Classification of Tumours:  Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone, Kleihues P, Sobin L, Fletcher C et al, eds.  Lyon, France:  IARC Press; 2002, pp. 264-270.  Available free here.

Samardziski M, Zafiroski G, Tolevska C, Konstadinova-Kunovska S, Vasilevska V. Parosteal osteosarcoma. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2009; 110(4): 240-4.  Free full text available here.

Staals EL, Bacchini P, Bertoni F. High-grade surface osteosarcoma: a review of 25 cases from the Rizzoli Institute. Cancer. 2008; 112(7): 1592-9.   Free full text available here.

Weiss A, Khoury JD, Hoffer FA, Wu J, Billups CA, Heck RK, Quintana J, Poe D, Rao BN, Daw NC. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital's experience. Cancer. 2007; 109(8): 1627-37.   Free full text available here.

 

Biology of Osteosarcoma

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

Klein MJ, Siegal GP. Osteosarcoma: anatomic and histologic variants. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006; 125(4): 555-81.   Free full text available here.

Lee JA, Kim MS, Koh JS, Kim MS, Kim DH, Lim JS, Kong CB, Song WS, Cho WH, Lee SY, Jeon DG. Osteosarcoma of the Flat Bone. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 19892781. 

Wang L.  Biology of Osteogenic Sarcoma.  Pediatric Cancer.  The Cancer Journal.  2005; 11(4): 294-305.

Cause and Risk Factors.

Berman SD, Yuan TL, Miller ES, Lee EY, Caron A, Lees JA.  The retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor is important for appropriate osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Mol Cancer Res. 2008; 6(9): 1440-51.

Berman SD, Calo E, Landman AS, Danielian PS, Miller ES, West JC, Fonhoue BD, Caron A, Bronson R, Bouxsein ML, Mukherjee S, Lees JA. Metastatic osteosarcoma induced by inactivation of Rb and p53 in the osteoblast lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(33): 11851-6.

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005.  Available at http://www.cure4kids.org/private/courses_documents/m_148/SIOP-2005-Education-Book.pdf 

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 from: http://sarcomahelp.org/osteosarcoma.html  

Clark JC, Dass CR, Choong PF. A review of clinical and molecular prognostic factors in osteosarcoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol.  2008; 134(3): 281-97.

Deyrup AT, Montag AG, Inwards CY, Xu Z, Swee RG, Unni KK.  Sarcomas Arising in Paget Disease of Bone: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 70 Cases.  Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007; 131(6): 942–946.

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Cause.  Accessed December 2009 from: http://www.ctu.mrc.ac.uk/euramos/about_o_causes.asp

Fraumeni J F Jr. Stature and malignant tumors of bone in childhood and adolescence. Cancer. 1967; 20: 967–73.

Gelberg KH, Fitzgerald EF, Hwang S, Dubrow R. Growth and development and other risk factors for osteosarcoma in children and young adults. Int J Epidemiol. 1997; 26(2): 272-8.

Gokgoz N, Wunder JS, Mousses S, Eskandarian S, Bell RS, Andrulis IL. Comparison of p53 mutations in patients with localized osteosarcoma and metastatic osteosarcoma. Cancer. 2001; 92(8): 2181-9.

Huvos AG, Higinbotham NL, Miller TR. Bone sarcomas arising in fibrous dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972 Jul ;54 (5):1047-56.

Jaffe HL: Paget's disease of bone. Arch Pathol. 1933; 15, 83-131.

Kansara M, Thomas DM. Molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. DNA Cell Biol. 2007; 26(1): 1-18.

Larizza L, Roversi G, Volpi L. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010 Jan 29; 5(1): 2. [Epub ahead of print]

Lin PP, Pandey MK, Jin F, Raymond AK, Akiyama H, Lozano G. Targeted mutation of p53 and Rb in mesenchymal cells of the limb bud produces sarcomas in mice. Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(10): 1789-95.

Longhi A, Pasini A, Cicognani A, Baronio F, Pellacani A, Baldini N, Bacci G. Height as a risk factor for osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005; 27(6): 314-8.

Malkin D. p53 and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1993; 66(2): 83-92.

Paget J., On a form of chronic inflammation of bones (osteitis deformans), Trans Med-Chir Soc, 1877; 60:37:63.

Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J. 1998; 156(1): 31-9.

Scranton PE Jr, DeCicco FA, Totten RS, Yunis EJ. Prognostic factors in osteosarcoma. A review of 20 year's experience at the University of Pittsburgh Health Center Hospitals. Cancer. 1975; 36(6): 2179-91.

Troisi R, Masters MN, Joshipura K, Douglass C, Cole BF, Hoover RN and the National Osteosarcoma Etiology Group. Perinatal factors, growth and development, and osteosarcoma risk. Br J Cancer, 2006; 95: 1603–1607

Urfer SR, Gaillard C, Steiger A. Lifespan and disease predispositions in the Irish Wolfhound: a review. Vet Q. 2007; 29(3): 102-11.

Wang L.  Biology of osteogenic sarcoma.  The Cancer Journal, 2005; 11(4): 294-305.

Presentation (clinical signs and symptoms)

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005.   Available here. 

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Presentation.  Accessed December 2009 here.

Widhe B, Widhe T.  Initial Symptoms and Clinical Features in Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma. J Bone & Joint Sur.  2000; 82: 667.

Yang JY, Cheng FW, Wong KC, Lee V, Leung WK, Shing MM, Kumta SM, Li CK. Initial presentation and management of osteosarcoma, and its impact on disease outcome. Hong Kong Med J. 2009; 15(6): 434-9.

Diagnosis

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005.  Available here. 

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Diagnosis.  Accessed December 2009 here.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guidance on Cancer Services; Improving Outcomes for People with Sarcoma. The Manual, (March 2006).  Available here.  

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance on cancer services: Improving outcomes in children and young people with Cancer (August 2005) and Improving outcomes for people with sarcoma (March 2006)

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Referral guidelines for suspected cancer.  (June 2005).  Available here.

 

Treatment

Barr RD, Wunder JS ‘Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are often curable -- but at what cost?’ Cancer. 2009; 115(18): 4046-4054.

Bernsein ML, Lewis I.  Osteosarcoma in, Education Book, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 37th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada · September 20-24, 2005.  Available here. 

Blunt M.  Chemotherapy, Cakes and Cancer (An A to Z survival guide for living with childhood cancer).  Published by CLIC Sargent, www.clicsargent.org.uk

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

Cho Y, Kim JD, Chung SH. Osteosarcoma of the patella: biologic reconstruction with allograft.  Orthopedics. 2009; 32(10). [e-pub Oct 10], doi: 10.3928/01477447-20090818-27.

Chou AJ, Kleinerman ES, Krailo MD, Chen Z, Betcher DL, Healey JH, Conrad EU 3rd, Nieder ML, Weiner MA, Wells RJ, Womer RB, Meyers PA; Children's Oncology Group. Addition of muramyl tripeptide to chemotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer. 2009; 115(22): 5339-48.

DiCaprio MR, Friedlaender GE.  Malignant Bone Tumors: Limb Sparing Versus Amputation J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2003; 11(1): 25-37.

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Treatment.  Accessed December 2009 here.

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  EURAMOS-1 clinical trial.  Accessed December 2009 here.

Elsevier Guide to Oncology Drugs & Regimens (2008 edition) Drugs and Regimens: High-dose methotrexate, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, cisplatin (Bone).  Accessed November 2009 here.

Ferrari S, Palmerini E. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy for osteogenic sarcoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007; 19(4): 341-6.

Heare T, Hensley MA, Dell'Orfano S. Bone tumors: osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009; 21(3): 365-72.

Hinds PS, Gattuso JS, Billups CA, West NK, Wu J, Rivera C, Quintana J, Villarroel M, Daw NC. Aggressive treatment of non-metastatic osteosarcoma improves health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45(11): 2007-14.

Hughes DP. Strategies for the targeted delivery of therapeutics for osteosarcoma. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009 Dec;6(12):1311-21.

Hughes DP. Novel agents in development for pediatric sarcomas. Curr Opin Oncol. 2009; 21(4): 332-7.

Janeway KA, Grier HE. Sequelae of osteosarcoma medical therapy: a review of rare acute toxicities and late effects. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jul;11(7):670-678. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

Kawasoe Y, Yokouchi M, Ueno Y, Iwaya H, Yoshida H, Komiya S. Hyperbaric oxygen as a chemotherapy adjuvant in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Oncol Rep. 2009; 22(5): 1045-50.

Langer T, Stöhr W, Bielack S, Paulussen M, Treuner J, Beck JD; German Late Effects Working Group in the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology. Late effects surveillance system for sarcoma patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004; 42(4): 373-9.

Marulanda GA, Henderson ER, Johnson DA, Letson GD, Cheong D. Orthopedic surgery options for the treatment of primary osteosarcoma. Cancer Contr. 2008; 15(1): 13-20.  Free full text available here.

Meyers PA. Muramyl tripeptide (mifamurtide) for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2009; 9(8): 1035-49.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Guidance on Cancer Services; Improving Outcomes for People with Sarcoma. The Manual, (March 2006).  Available here.  

Nicholson S, Mulvihill JJ, Byrne J.  Late effects of therapy in adult survivors of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.  Med Pediatr oncol, 2006; 20(1): 6-12.

O'Day K, Gorlick R.  Novel Therapeutic Agents for Osteosarcoma.  Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2009; 9(4): 511-523.

Picci P, Mercuri M, Ferrari S, Alberghini M, Briccoli A, Ferrari C, Pignotti E, Bacci G. Survival in high-grade osteosarcoma: improvement over 21 years at a single institution.  Ann Oncol. 2009 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 19889609.

Sciubba DM, Okuno SH, Dekutoski MB, Gokaslan ZL. Ewing and osteogenic sarcoma: evidence for multidisciplinary management. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009; 34(22 Suppl): S58-68.

Siegel HJ, Pressey JG.  Current Concepts on the Surgical and Medical Management of Osteosarcoma.  Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2008; 8(8): 1257-1269.

Stohr W, Langer T, Kremers A, Bielack S, Lamprecht-Dinnesen A, Frey E, Beck JD; German Late Effects Working Group in the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in osteosarcoma patients: a report from the late effects surveillance system. Cancer Invest. 2005; 23(3): 201-7.

Su AW, Chen WM, Chen CF, Chen TH. Innovative trident fixation technique for allograft knee arthrodesis for high-grade osteosarcoma around the knee. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009; 39(11): 739-44.

Whelan J, Patterson D, Perisoglou M, Bielack S, Marina N, Smeland S, Bernstein M. The role of interferons in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 19902521

Winkelmann WW. Rotationplasty. Orthop Clin North Am. 1996; 27(3): 503-23.

Prognosis and Prognostic Factors

Buddingh EP, Anninga JK, Versteegh MI, Taminiau AH, Egeler RM, van Rijswijk CS, Hogendoorn PC, Lankester AC, Gelderblom H. Prognostic factors in pulmonary metastasized high-grade osteosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010; 54(2): 216-21.

Buecker PJ, Gebhardt M, Weber K. Osteosarcoma. An ESUN Article.  Liddy Schriver Sarcoma Initiative, 2005.  Accessed December, 2009 here.  

European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS).  Osteosarcoma; Diagnosis.  Accessed December 2009 here.

Bielack SS, Kempf-Bielack B, Delling G, Exner GU, Flege S, Helmke K, Kotz R, Salzer-Kuntschik M, Werner M, Winkelmann W, Zoubek A, Jürgens H, Winkler K. Prognostic factors in high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities or trunk: an analysis of 1,702 patients treated on neoadjuvant cooperative osteosarcoma study group protocols. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20(3): 776-90.  Free full text available here.

Harting MT, Lally KP, Andrassy RJ, Vaporciyan AA, Cox CS Jr, Hayes-Jordan A, Blakely ML. Age as a prognostic factor for patients with osteosarcoma: an analysis of 438 patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep 27. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 19784847.

Kim MS, Lee SY, Cho WH, et al. Initial tumor size predicts histologic response and survival in localized osteosarcoma patients. J Surg Oncol. 2008; 97(5): 456-61.

The authors and reviewers of this information are committed to producing reliable, accurate and up to date content reflecting the best available research evidence, and best clinical practice. We aim to provide unbiased information free from any commercial conflicts of interest. This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. BCRT can answer questions about primary bone cancers, including treatments and research but we are unable to offer specific advice about individual patients. If you are worried about any symptoms please consult your doctor.

Version 2 produced January 2013
Information will be reviewed in January 2015

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