This information has been written for patients, their families and friends and the general public to help them understand more about a form of primary bone cancer known as Ewing sarcoma. This page will detail what Ewing sarcoma is and how Ewing sarcoma is diagnosed and treated.

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What is Ewing sarcoma?

Ewing sarcoma is a rare cancer that can form in bone in 85% of cases and soft tissue. It belongs to a group of tumours known as the Ewing sarcoma family of tumours.

The Ewing family of tumours includes:

  • Ewing sarcoma - a form of primary bone cancer
  • Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma - a tumour that starts in soft-tissue rather than the bone
  • Askin tumour - Ewing sarcoma that starts in the chest wall
  • Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour - Ewing sarcoma where the cells look like nerve cells when studied under the microscope

Ewing sarcomas is the second most commonly diagnosed primary bone cancer in children and young people, after osteosarcoma.

Ewing sarcoma can start anywhere in body, but more often it is found in the pelvis, the chest or in the bones of the legs.

Figure 1. Where does Ewing Sarcoma occur most often?

Ewing sarcoma arises from any part of the bone with almost equal frequency. Ewing sarcoma is more commonly found in flat bones e.g. the ribs or the pelvis.

Figure 2. What are the different parts of a long bone?